Transport in Flowering Plants Revision Structured Question

1. The figure below shows the outline of a root hair cell.

o lvl 1.7 Q3.jpg

(a) (i) Complete a detailed and fully labelled diagram of a root hair cell within the outline provided.

(ii) Name the process by which water enters the vacuole of a root hair cell.

(iii) State two conditions which must exist so that this process will occur.

(b) State two advantages to a plant in having a large number of root hairs.

(c) (i) State two elements commonly supplied to plants by means of inorganic fertilisers.

(ii) State the form in which each of these elements is usually absorbed

(d) (i) Name the tissue in a plant which water ascends from root to leaf.

(ii) What is upward flow of water called?

(iii) Name the process by which most of the water that rises up a plant in this way escapes to the atmosphere.

2. Fig 2 is a graph showing the rates of water absorption and transpiration of a plant during a 24-hour Period.st pat Q3.PNG

Fig. 2

(a) (i) What is the difference between the rates of transpiration and water absorption between 0000 and 0600 hours?

(ii) State a reason for the difference observed in question (a) (i).

(b) A change in the environment occurred between 0600 hours and 1400 hours. ldentify two likely environmental changes.

(c)  Complete the following table:st pat Q3B.PNG

(d) (i) What does the area under graph X represent?

(ii) what do areas A represent?

=========================

Answer:

2. (a) (i) The rate of water absorption is higher / greater / faster than transpiration.

(ii)

  • The water absorbed is used to maintain turgidity of cells
  • The water absorbed is stored by the plant (e.g. cacti)
    OR
  • Low light intensity –> stomata close –> decrease in rate of transpiration

(b)

  • An increase in air speed
  • A decrease in atmospheric humidity
  • An increase in light intensity
  • An increase in temperature

(c)

st pat Q3 Ans.PNG

(d) (i)  It represents the total amount of water lost
period.

(ii)  They represent the net amount of water gained by the plant from around 1500 to 2400 hours and from 0000 to 0700 hours.

 

o lvl 1.7 Q3.jpg

Advertisements

Transport in Humans Revision Structured Question

1. The figure below shows sections through two types of human blood vessel.

macpherson Q1.PNG

(a) Name the types of blood vessel shown in the figure above.

(b) (i) Describe two differences in the structure of blood vessels A and B.

(ii) For each of your answers in (b)(i), explain how the difference in structure relates to the function of the blood vessel.

(c)  Blood vessels can sometimes be damaged when a person cuts himself. Outline the main stages in blood clotting

2. (a)  Describe coronary heart disease.
It has been suggested that eating a balanced diet may help to prevent heart disease.
Besides a balanced diet, state one other factor that may decrease the risk of heart diseases.

(b)  ln the human body, blood carries out both protective and transport functions. Describe the role of white blood cells in protecting the body, the role of red blood cells and plasma in transport of substances.

3. Fig. 2.1 shows the results of five independent investigations into the effect of physical activity on heart disease.mansjuri Q7.PNG

Fig. 2.1

(a) With reference to data from Fig. 2, describe the effect of level of physical activity on the risk of heart disease.
Use information about the circulatory system to account for the trend observed.

(d)  Fig. 2.2 shows how the blood pressure changes in artery, capillaries and veins.serangoon Q7c.PNG

Fig. 2.2

Describe how the pressure changes from arteries, capillaries to the vein. Explain how the structures of arteries and vein are adapted to the pressure and allow blood to flow continuously.

==========================

Answer:

1. (a) A: Artery; B: Vein

(b) (i) A/artery is thicker walled than vein;
A/artery has smaller lumen than vein;
B/vein has valve, artery does not

(ii) artery has to withstand greater (blood) pressure; (reject if students use ‘generate’)
blood moves at a faster speed in artery than in vein;
valve needed to prevent backflow in vein as blood is at low pressure in veins

(c) damaged tissue and platelets produce enzyme thrombokinase;
thrombokinase converts inactive prothrombin into thrombin:
thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin;
red blood cells and platelets are trapped in the mesh of fibrin threads to form a blood clot.

2. (a) Besides a balanced diet, state one other factor that may decrease the risk of heart diseases.
Coronary heart disease is due to the deposition of fats and cholesterol in the lumen of the coronary arteries.
This reduces the blood supply to the heart muscles. hence decreasing supply of oxygen and glucose to the heart muscles.
Resulting in lower rate of respiration, hence lesser energy release for heart muscle contraction, resulting in heart attack.  To reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, a person should exercise regularly/do not smoke/do not drink excessively/maintain healthy weight.

(b)

  • Lymphocytes produce antibodies/ cause bacteria to clump
  • Lymphocytes recognise and reject foreign tissue
  • Phagocytes engulf and ingest foreign bacteria
  • Red blood cells transport oxygen from lungs to all body cells
  • Plasma transport blood cells/ions/soluble food substances; hormones/carbon dioxide/urea/vitamins/plasma proteins

3. (a) As the level of physical activity increases. the risk of dying from the heart disease decrease. As the level of physical activity increases, there is increased blood flow, hence increasing supply of oxygen and glucose to the heart muscles.
This allows sufficient oxygen and glucose available for cellular respiration, hence releasing sufficient energy for heart muscle contraction.
Exercise also helps keep the arteries elastic, allowing fats and cholesterol to be able to move easily in the blood.
Exercise also improves blood circulation so that it reduces the chances of blood clots leading to heart attack.

(b)

  •  The pressure is highest at arteries and the pressure decreases, the pressure is the lowest at the veins
  • The pressure changes at artery due to contraction and relaxation of the heart
  • The wall of artery is thicker to withstand the higher blood pressure
  • The pressure of vein is low and the wall is thinner
  • Valves are present in veins to prevent backflow of blood

 

Transport in Flowering Plants Revision MCQ Question

1. A destarched plant was exposed to radioactive carbon dioxide. After 24 hours, the plant was removed and sections were taken from the root and the stem. Which diagram shows the presence of radioactive substance?st joseph Q27.PNG

2. A plant has a ring of bark removed from its stem. A swelling occurs within a week of the experiment as shown in the diagram.

kuo chuan Q28.PNG

Which of the following best describes why the plant dies eventually?

A.    Supply of carbon dioxide to the roots is cut off.
B.    Supply of mineral salts to the leaves is cut off.
C.    Supply of sugars to the roots is cut off.
D.    Supply of water to the leaves is cut off.

3. Anhydrous cobalt chloride (or cobalt thiocynate) paper placed against the lower surface and the upper surface of a leaf has a faster change of colour on the lower surface. This information indicates that

A.    transpiration takes place through the stomata
B.    there are more stomata on the lower surface than on the upper
C.    the rate of transpiration of the upper surface of the leaf is faster than that of the lower
D.    the rate of transpiration of the lower surface of the leaf is faster than that of the upper

4.  Fig. A shows an experiment to study the movement of materials in a plant.
Fig. B shows how a ring of bark was removed at point Y.katong Q30.PNG

The plant was exposed to light for a few hours. All three leaves, F, G and H, were tested for the presence of radioactive sugar compounds. Which leaves contained radioactive sugar compounds?

Bkatong Q30.PNG

5. An herbaceous plant, growing in a nutrient solution, was placed in a well-lit experimental chamber through which humid air was being drawn slowly. The diagram below shows a section through a part of the plant.

o lvl 1.7 Q9 A.jpg

It was possible to measure the speed of movement of fluid in tissues P and Q. The humid air was then replaced by dry air and it was observed that changes in the speed of movement occurred. What are these changes?o lvl 1.7 Q 9.PNG

======================

Answer: BCDCA

Transport in Humans Revision MCQ Question

1. The diagram below shows blood after undergoing centrifugation, whereby blood is spun at high speeds to separate them into their components.

yuying Q8.PNG

Layer X is the liquid part of the blood. Which row of the table identifies each of the blood components X, Y and Z?yuying Q8B.PNG

2. The diagram represents the relationship between red blood cells, capillaries and tissue cells in the transport of carbon dioxide. Which correctly identifies the form in which carbon dioxide is transported around the body?junyuan Q7.PNG

3. The diagram shows a vertical section through the heart. Which blood vessel carries oxygenated brood from the lungs?st joseph Q28.PNG

4.  The graph shows pressure change in the left ventricle and left atrium in one cycle of contraction of the heart. During which period of time is ventricle contracting?kuo chuan Q30.PNG

5. Which one of the following describes the functions of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves? They prevent backflow of blood from ________________________________.

A.    ventricles to atria
B.    atria lo ventricles
C.    aorta/pulmonary artery to ventricles
D.    ventricles to aorta/pulmonary artery

6. The diagrams below show the cross-sections of the three blood vessels. Which of the following correctly states its function?northland Q28.PNGnorthland Q28B.PNG

7. The diagram shows section through four hearts
Which of the following has arrows correctly showing the direction of blood passing through all the valves?kuo chuan Q31.PNG

=====================

Answer: DCDBAAA

 

Nutrition in Humans Revision Structured Question

1.  Table 1.1 shows the relative amounts of fatty acids and amino acids found in a person’s alimentary canal. Neither fatty acids nor amino acids were found in the original meal taken by this person.

st pat Q2.PNG

Fig. 1.1

(a) Name the process that facilitates the movement of food to move through the alimentary canal.

(b) Explain the changes in the amounts of fatty acids.

(i) in the duodenum

(ii) in the ileum

(c)  Fig. 1.2 shows the internal structure of a part of the mammalian alimentary canal.

st pat Q2B.PNG

Fig. 1.2

(i) Name the structures A, B and C.

(ii) How is C adapted for its function?

2.  Fig. 2.1shows some structures associated with the digestive enzyme system of a mouse which is very much similar to that found in humans.seng kang Q2.PNG

(a)  Name the parts labelled S and T.

(b) Two groups of mice were surgically treated as shown in Table 2.1.

seng kang Q2B.PNG

The two groups of mice were fed over a week and the effect of the treatment for each group was recorded. Provide explanation for each of the effect recorded below.

(i) The mice from Group A egested faeces containing a very high percentage of fats.

(ii) The average weight of mice from Group B dropped from 25 g to 18 g over the week.

(c)  Fig. 2.2 shows a structure found in the digestive system of the mouse.

seng kang Q2C.PNG

(i) On Fig. 2-1, place an ‘X’ to show where the structure shown in Fig. 2.2 can be found.
(ii) ln Table 2.2, place ticks in the boxes to show the nutrients that would be transported in the vessels labelled P and Q in the structure shown in Fig. 2.2.seng kang Q2D.PNG

==================

Answer:

1. (a) Peristalsis

(b) (i)  This is due to the presence of the pancreatic lipase and intestinal lipase digest/hydrolysis; fats into fatty acids and glycerol

(ii) As absorption/diffusion of fatty acids; into lacteals/lymph vessels of villi which decrease the amount of fatty acids

(c) (i) A – lacteal/lymphatic capillary; B – blood capillaries; C- villus

(ii) One-cell thick + faster rate of absorption; microvili + increases surface area to volume ratio for faster rate of absorption

2. (a) S – gall bladder; T – pancreas

(b) (i) Most fats cannot be digested as bile is not present to emulsify the fats. Hence most fats remains undigested/not digested and passed out as faeces.
Reject- S produce bile to digest fats or Bile breakdown fats

(ii) Enzymes from pancreatic juice are not present to digest the food. Food cannot be digested/ Nutrients are not absorbed into bloodstream causing the loss of weight.

(c) (i)

seng kang Q2 Ans.PNG

(ii)

seng kang Q2 Ans B.PNG

 

 

Nutrition in Humans Revision MCQ Question

 

1. The secretions below are vital for healthy digestion in the human body.

I. Saliva         II. Gastric Juice          III. Bile          IV. Intestine

Which of the secretions above contain proteases?

A.    1 and 2 only
B.    2 and 3 only
C.    2 and 4 only
D.    3 and 4 only

2. The diagram shows some organs of the human body. Which structure does not move its contents by peristalsis?chij katong Q27.PNG

3. The diagram shows the liver and associated blood vesselspasir ris crest Q5.PNG

ln which blood vessel will the level of glucose be the highest after a meal?
A.    P
B.    Q
C.    R
D.    S

4. The graphs show the concentrations of glucose and insulin in the blood of a healthy person. Which graph shows the changes expected after a meal containing starch?

serangoon Q35.PNG

5.  The diagram below shows part of a mammalian digestive system.

junyuan Q5.PNGAn experiment was conducted with juices W and Z on vegetable oil. What shows the possible result obtained?

 

A.    Juice W mixed with vegetable oil results in highest amount of fatty acids formed.
B.    Juice W and Z mixed with vegetable oil results in, highest amount of fatty acids formed
C.    Juice Z mixed with vegetable oil results in no fatty acids formed
D.    Juice Z mixed with vegetable oil results in highest amount of fatty acids formed

===========================

Answer: CDCAB

 

 

Nutrition in Plants Revision Structured Question

1.  (a) A student investigated the effect of varying carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. Fig. 1.1 shows the results of his investigation.northland Q3.PNG

Fig. 1.1

(i) With reference to Fig. 1.1, describe the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis.

(ii)  Explain the effect of increasing light intensity at point A and B of the graph.

(b)  Fig. 1.2 shows the cross-sectional area of a leaf.

northland Q3B.PNG

Fig. 1.2

(i) With reference to Fig. 1.2, describe and explain the distribution of chloroplasts in the cross-sectional area of the leaf.

(ii) Describe how the cells in the leaves take in nutrients required for photosynthesis

(iii) Suggest and explain how light affects the size the stomata.

2. A plant is left in a sunny position without being watered for ten hours. Fig 2.1 shows the appearance of one of the stomata on the lower surface of a leaf from this plant every hour, for 10 hours.serangoon Q4.PNG

Fig. 2.1

(a) Describe and explain the way that the stoma changed from hour 6 onwards will help in the plant’s survival.

(b) Fig 2.2 shows the arrangement of guard cell and epidermal cell. After six hours the water content of the guard cells decreased compared to the surrounding epidermal cells.serangoon Q4B.PNG

Explain the movement of water in guard cell that leads to decrease in size and results in change on the shape of the stomata.

(c) Suggest and explain how the change shown in the diagram might affect photosynthesis taking place in the leaves of this plant.

==============================

Answer:

1 (a)(i) An increase in carbon dioxide concentration increases the rate of photosynthesis

(ii)  At point A, light intensity is the limiting factor;
But at point B, light intensity is no longer the limiting factor but carbon dioxide concentration is

(b)(i)  More chloroplasts is found in palisade mesophyll cells than in spongy mesophyll and guard cells; Palisade mesophyll cells are found near the surface of the leaf; Hence is exposed to more sunlight

(ii)  Carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaves through the stomata; Water diffuses into the root / root hair cells by osmosis; water move from xylem to cells by osmosis

(iii) At high light intensity, stomata size becomes bigger;
Water is taken into the guard cells and becomes turgid

2. (a) The stomata reduced in size water loss was reduced
and this prevents wilting

(b) The movement of water from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower potential through a partially permeable membrane by osmosis guard cells became flaccid they changed shape to close the stoma.

(c) photosynthesis decreased, carbon dioxide could not enter through the closed stomata. By diffusion

 

 

Nutrition in Plants Revision MCQ Question

 

1. The diagram shows a section through a leaf of a green plant.

kuo chuan Q29.PNG

Which of the following functions of the tissues are correct?kuo chuan Q29B.PNG

2. Leaves have different levels of organization. Which of the following describes the leaf, mesophyll layer and epidermis?kuo chuan Q22.PNG

3.  Four Balsam plant leaves were collected for an experiment investigating transpiration rates- The leaves were treated in different ways before the loss in mass over three hours was measured. The table below shows the results of the experiment.seng kang Q30.PNGHow were the various leaves likely to have been treated?seng kang Q30B.PNG

4. A plant is left in the hot sun for six hours.

macpherson Q27.PNG

The diagram shows how the appearance of the plant changes during this time. What explains the change in appearance of the plant?

A.    More water is lost by transpiration than is absorbed.
B.    Stomata have closed.
C.    The concentration of water in the cells has increased
D.    There is less support provided by the xylem.

5.  The diagram shows a photosynthesising water plant. The rate of photosynthesis is measured by bubbles of gas released.

macpherson Q26.PNG

After a few minutes the bubbles cease. Which factor in the water might be limiting the rate of photosynthesis?

A.    carbon dioxide
B.    nitrate
C.    water
D.    oxygen

6. The graph below shows the amount of water lost per unit area from the leaf surface of two different plants at different times of the day. Both plants were grown under exact same conditions.junyuan Q6.PNGWhat can you conclude using information from the graph?
A.    At 12 noon, plant 1 has a greater water loss per unit area than plant 2.
B.    At 5 pm, plant 1 has a greater rate of photosynthesis than plant 2.
C.    Plant 1 will have all its stomata open in the evening.
D.    Plant 2 will more likely survive in a dry environment than plant 1.

=========================================

Answer: BBBAAD

 

Respiration in Human Revision Structured Questions

1. Fig. 1.1 shows an alveolus.

macpherson Q2.PNG

Fig. 1.1

(a) Describe two characteristics of alveoli that enable fast transfer of oxygen to
the blood.

(b) Fig. 1.2(a) and Fig. 1.2(b) shows the graphs of how the concentration of
lactic acid and oxygen consumption of an athlete vary over the course of
exercise.

macpherson Q2B.PNG

Fig. 1.2

(i) The athlete exercised from 0 – 18 minutes. Study the trend in Fig. 2.2(b) and explain the importance of the change in oxygen intake.

(ii)  Describe and explain the relationship between oxygen consumption and
the concentration of lactic acid in the muscles from the 18th to 25th minute.

2. The following figure shows models which demonstrate the actions of two different sets of muscles used during breathing in a mammal.

o lvl 1.9b pg24 q10.jpg

(a) Which two diagrams represent the thorax after breathing in?

(b) Which structures in the human thorax are represented by the following parts labelled on the models?

P:

Q:

R:

S:

(c) State three ways in which the model shown in C/D does not accurately represent the process of breathing in a mammal.

===============================================

Answer:

1. (a) One cell thick alveolar wall which reduces diffusion distance for increased rate of transfer for oxygen into blood capillary. AND Richly supplied with blood capillaries to maintain the concentration gradient between alveolar air and blood to ensure rapid transfer of oxygen into blood capillary.

(b)(i) volume of oxygen intake increased over 18 min;
oxygen taken in by muscle cells for aerobic respiration;
release energy for muscular contractions.

(ii) oxygen consumption remains relatively/ constantly high (than at rest). as amount of lactic acid decreases: oxygen needed to repav oxygen debt; lactic acid is oxidised in liver and converted back into glucose.

(Students cannot see the relationship between oxygen and lactic acid. Describe the trend without stating that oxygen is remaining constantly high, they do not make reference to the level of constant. Does not state that oxygen remains high after exercising. Students do not understand the link between the concepts of
anaerobic respiration and oxygen debt.)

2. (a) B and C

(b) P: Vertebral column

Q: Rib

R: Intercostal muscle

S: Trachea

(c) The piston represents the diaphragm but the diaphragm does not move during breathing. The container represents the thorax which should expand during breathing. The ribs are not represented in the model.